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Recent research shows that prior knowledge, or what you already know, is a key factor in performance, including decision making. Recent findings by decision scientists Saurabh Bhargava, George Loewenstein, and Justin Sydnor, for example, illustrate the difficulty of making good healthcare plan decisions without adequate and accurate prior knowledge. A majority of the people in the study chose plans that cost more (in many cases, a lot more) than they needed to. In other words, they could have paid less for the same coverage. This happened not only the first year of implementation, but the following year as well. A lack of prior knowledge needed to analyze the plans led to poor results.